Keywords: apple, (Malus domestica Borkh),Pakistan,KPK,varieties of apple,cultivation.
Temperate region of western Asia, between black sea ans Caspian Sea.
1.2 CULTIVATION IN PAKISTAN
It is cultivated in cold mountains regions of Azaad Kashmir, Baluchistan, Punjab, KPK. In KPK apple is cultivated in malakand division.
1.3 DIETERY IMPORTANCE
An apple a day keeps the doctor away” clears the nutritional value of apple among other fruits. It contains Vitamin A, Vitamin B,C,Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron. Similarly besides these Protein, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Maalic acid are important food components. Apple improve brain, liver,amount and synthesis of blood, for intestinal infection it is very good as it produces bulkiness. Heart attack and other diseases of Heart are avoided by intake of apple as raw or extract of it. Diarrhea, cough and are cured by its juice as it contains iron.
1.4 APPLE CULTIVARS
Amri, Kashmir amri, Golden delicious(sheen kullu), red delicious(star king), sky spur, banki, gala must, Spartin, Royal Gala, mundial Gala, crimson stark, qandhari, mash`hadi, oregon spur, qallat special, grainy smith, red chief, kaja(katy), daksi, pink lady, summer red,Anna are grown in different parts of the country.
i.crimson gala ii. Red delicious
1.5 CULTIVATION REQUIREMENTS
Apple can be grown on loamy soils as well as clay loam but with some exceptions. Apple is susceptible to saline and high alkalinity. As a whole the apple cultivation is recommended for soils having good absorption of water, and having water retention capacity.Above 1300 m altitude apple grow well. A rainfall of 25-30 inches thoroughly distributed with irrigation source produces good results. As the apple tree is grown on high altitudes, need for rainfall increases as other sources of irrigation are not available easily.supplementary irrigation is required where there is low rain fall.
1.6 NURSERY RAISING AND PLANT SELECTION
Apple is grown from the seedlings/suckers rootstock. Rootstock is selected at the basis of adaptability. In Pakistan crab apple (desi saib, murabba saib) is used as rootstock due to its high soil adaptability in respect of nutrient absorption and soil based disease resistance.
1.7 PLANNING ORCHARD
Selection of cultivar for growing an orchard and use of proper rootstock is a preliminary step. As success of a commercial orchard depends greatly on this factor. Selection must be on the basis as the plant material should be free from any type of disease contents, free from damage, taken from a reliable source.A rootstock of pencil girth is selected for grafting. Propagation is performed in the month of December-January. Orchard is usually layout in January end. Square system is mostly adopted due to its ease in cultural operations. Cleft grafting and tongue grafting 20-30 cm above ground is found successful and give good scion and stock contact. Plant to plant distance and row to row distance is kept in the range of 20 ft. in the month of December the 3*3*3 drench are prepared and after a few days the equal amount of FYM, soil, and leave straw are mixed and the drench is filled followed by irrigation. The aforesaid planting distance accommodate 109 plants per Acre. But it is not a mention standard and can be changed for dwarf varieties. Orchard must be started in the month of february up to mid of march. In this time plants are in dormant condition and buds are in no growth stage, but care must be taken no to damage the buds during plantation, similarly if there is ample snow fall in the month of December, January plantation may be completed in November. While planning an orchard pollenizer must be incorporated. Otherwise the production of orchard is affected. For different varieties of apple, no of pollenizer are in different ratios. In Pakistan 4:1 ratio is in practice. Pollinating varieties are spartin, tya fiesta, Golden delicious, black kullu, Amri and Qandhaari. Where there is production affected due to lack of pollenizer, plastic bags filled with the water and buke of pollenizer variety flowers is kept in that for pollination, similarly honey bee boxes 3 to 4 in no. also fulfill the requirement of pollinating agent. At the time of flowering the irrigation must be carefully applied. A heavy irrigation leads to the pollens ruptures well before time. It reduces the population of fruit set and female flowers are also greatly effected.
At the time of flowering the irrigation must be carefully applied. A heavy irrigations leads to the pollens ruptures well before time. It reduces the population of fruit set and female flowers are also greatly effected.
1.8 FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS
FYM and fertilizers are nutrients supplementing elements in agriculture, and experience has shown that proper use of fertilizer boost the productions of crops to a marked level. Well rottened manure is use during pits filling along with the non volatile fertilizers. An average fertility orchard is applied ratio of 70:35:70 gram per year of NPK, while after ten years the dose is reached upto 700:350:700 gram per tree. These applications may be supplemented by the FYM. A ten kg of FYM well rottened applied to a tree in a year fulfil the requirement of tree. More precise and standardize idea about application of fertilizer can be had from soil analysis at any time after crop harvest and other split times to understand the need of nutrients. In Pakistan micro nutrients deficiency has been observed i.e iron, copper, Boron. The deficiency of the these elements is due to application of DAP and UREA. These fertilizers produces basic pH soils, where these elements are in reduced form and are not available in the root zone to the tree roots. Using SSP, TSP and Ammonium based nitrogen fertilizer reduces reduces the pH of the soils helping in micro nutrients availability. In order to reduce the pH, sulphuric acid 40% diluted with water should be used with irrigation in the month of September and December
As already discussed the high elevations are largerly depended on the rainfall. A greater part of the apple growing season in the region gets regular rainfall irrigation water except in May-June where the threshold of rain reduces mostly in the locality. As the most of the fruit is from the balochistan in queta district, de to less rainfall in the month of May-June, irrigations after ten days to young trees and fifteen days interval to bearing tree are adviceable
1.9 PRUNINING AND TRAINING
Pruning is not a regular practice in the region, while observing its importance in the light of light penetration, strong frame work development it increase the viability of the plant ten times. In young trees training is performed to develop a stout frame work of plant. Leader, modified leader, central, modified open center, or grapes shape training is recommended at various parts of the growing. After the development of the framework each year pruning must be performed on such a way that the intensity of fruit set is higher. Fruit bearing habit of apple is based on one year old spur, but some times fruit setting also occur on current year growth.
Viewing the varietal difference pruning must not be so severe that it doesn’t allow the tree to recover before bloom. Similarly the fruiting spur pruning should be avoided. Diseased and dry branches must be pruned. Pruning should be performed in winters when the plants are in dormant condition. Pruning increase the size of fruit and its quality. Similarly it also regulates the alternate bearing habit of tree.
1.11 HARVESTING, PACKAGING AND STORAGE
Fruits should be picked when reach maturity. Maturity indices are technically different but in Pakistan when the fruit reaches maturity and characteristic color develops, fruit become soft and juicy and the acidity of the fruit reduces and on cutting into half fruit flesh is pure white to yellowish. Immature fruits picked are shrived and have physiological disorders during storage. A well developed apple tree with strong and stout frame work help in harvesting operation and less breakage to the tree occur during harvest. After picking fruit should be kept in cool place under shade with well ventilated place. Apple are packed in wooden crates, card board boxes, cartons or in film bags. Before the packing fruit is graded according to size and color.time of storage greatly depends upon the storage provisions. In Pakistan fruit is stored in cold stores situated in big cities. Fruit is picked and transported to these cities where the middle men and fruit merchants dealing bulk quantities store them in cold stores for approximately a year. But in case of time, after six months the amount of juice and quality of fruit reduces greatly.